Country experience

Below is a list of  my work and consulting experience by country.  

I have lived and worked outside North America for a total of twenty years, in addition to doing  numerous short-term assignments overseas while based in the Washington D.C. metro area.

I have worked in Bangladesh, Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad, China, Ghana, Haiti, India, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Maldives, Mozambique, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, Vietnam, and Zambia.



Results Reporting.  Assist the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) country team to monitor and report on results for activities in the three WSP business lines in Bangladesh, and advise on ways to improve monitoring.  Client: World Bank-Bangladesh (Mark Ellery).  January – December 2013.

Preparation of Bangladesh Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project:  Team member.  Looked particularly at how to increase the role of local government in overseeing the private operators selected to manage the completed piped schemes.  Part of technical support provided to South Asia Region while on the World Bank staff.  2011.  (Team Leader – Arif Ahmed).

Implementation Completion Report:  Team Leader.  Prepared the completion report on the Bangladesh Water Supply Program Project, 2006-2010.  Part of technical support provided to South Asia Region while on the World Bank staff.  2011.

Public-private partnerships and rural piped schemes:  Assessed the performance of selected rural piped schemes constructed by projects using different implementation and management models, all of which incorporated some type of public-private partnership.  Prepared report and Field Note outlining issues that should be pursued with Bangladesh stakeholders in order to improve public-private partnerships and the sustainability of rural piped schemes.  Client: World Bank-Bangladesh (A. Motaleb, G. Pearce-Oroz).  2008.

Investigation of the productive uses of water:  Carried out a rapid assessment of whether income-generating activities using water from domestic supplies could make a significant contribution to financing the construction, operation, and maintenance of such supplies.  Identified bucket-drip irrigation and rural multipurpose piped schemes as two technologies with potential for leveraging domestic finance.  Wrote a report which situated the assessment within the literature on productive water use, defined the issues for Bangladesh, synthesized available information on the situation in Bangladesh, and recommended a more detailed study of rural piped schemes.  Client: World Bank-Bangladesh (Glenn Pearce-Oroz).  2007.

Public expenditure review:  Team leader.  Prepared chapter and background paper on water supply and sanitation sector for World Bank national public expenditure review.  Summarized current situation in terms of where investments and reforms needed.  Constructed database on central government allocations and expenditures for water supply projects—first time such data made available.  Analyzed unit costs.  Analyzed government’s proposed sector investment program, pointing out key shortcomings: unrealistic financing requirements and construction schedule; emphasis on construction over sectoral reform; certain poor strategic choices; unclear criteria for deciding priority investments; document unsuited to annual budgeting process.  Recommended next steps for World Bank.  Client:  World Bank-Bangladesh (Kawanja Minnatullah).  2005.

Program evaluation:  Evaluated effectiveness of UNICEF community projects and impact of UNICEF country program on women.  Client: Danida.  Contractor: Cowi (Poul Engberg-Petersen).  1992.


Review draft Terms of Reference:  Reviewed the draft terms of reference for improvements to the Port of Cotonou.  Advised whether adequate provision made for social, cultural, and gender impact assessment of proposed activities.  Client: Millennium Challenge Corporation.  Contractor: Wilbur Smith Associates (Randolph Lintz).  2007.

Project evaluation:  Assessed the operation, maintenance, and sustainability of a USAID rural water, sanitation, and health education project.  Client: USAID.  Contractor: WASH (CDM International, Philip Roark).  1992.

Project identification:  Assessed the effectiveness of an on-going GTZ urban health education and sanitation project, and designed a similar component for a Danida-supported urban water supply project.  Client: Danida (Kurt Morck Jensen).  Contractor: Nielsen and Rauschenberg (Henning Lehd).  1991.

Burkina Faso

Due Diligence:  Gender and Social Impact Specialist on due diligence team appraising three irrigation projects proposed for Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) funding.  Reviewed secondary literature on gender, poverty, and agriculture in Burkina Faso.  Held stakeholder consultations with women, youth, and men in project areas.  Assessed feasibility studies.  Identified mistaken understanding in feasibility studies of women’s agricultural roles, rights, and responsibilities.  Identified women’s access and rights to the land they cultivate as key issue.  Recommended measures to incorporate in government-to-government agreement and project design in order to protect women’s interest, maximize productivity on irrigated plots, and increase poverty reduction impact of projects.  Client: MCC (Awa Bamba).  Contractor: Roche Consulting Engineers (Christian Bérubé).  2007.

Project appraisal:  Assessed strategy, planning, and budget for activities to involve beneficiaries in a rural water and health education project.  Client: Danida (Jette Bukh).  Contractor: Denconsult (John Carlsen).  1992.

Project review/appraisal:  Assessed the role of—and impact on—beneficiaries of the first phase of a project to construct six small town water supplies, and the proposals for a future phase of the project.  Client: Danida (Bente Schiller).  Contractor: Denconsult (John Carlsen).  1992.


Appraisal of Community-Driven Development Project:  Advised on how the procedures for implementing rural water supply activities could best be harmonized with  national policy and strategy.  Part of technical support provided to Africa Region while on the World Bank staff.  2011.  (Team Leader – Souleman Fofana).


Project appraisal:  Assessed probable socio-economic impact of, and consumer interest in, municipal wastewater treatment plants in Weinan, Shaanxi Province; Maoming, Guangdong Province; Hanzhong, Shaanxi Province; and Putian, Fujian Province.  Client: Danida.  Contractor: HAP Consultants.  2000.

Project appraisal:  Assessed probable ability and willingness of target group to participate in pig breeding project; appraised training component.  Client: Danida.  Contractor:  HAP Consultants.  1999.


Project review:  Handled progress and issues related to rural water component in Danida’s biennial review of its water sector support program.  Quantified and rated progress on water supply, sanitation, and hygiene activities.  Identified impediments to progress as misdirected district capacity-building, inefficiencies in public procurement procedures, and poor monitoring and progress reporting.  Flagged incipient maintenance problems that will become more evident over next two years.  Proposed solutions which subsequently adopted: more focused capacity-building, government intervention on procurement problems, and spreadsheet format for progress reporting.  Voiced strong support for future integration of Danish assistance to decentralization with that to water, sanitation, and hygiene as a more effective strategy for improving local service provision.  Client: Danida (John Nielsen).  Contractor: Resources Development Consultants (Jens Bjerre).  2006.

Knowledge product:  Analyzed the factors behind the initial success of rural water sector reform in Ghana.  Report published as Blue-Gold Note No. 2 Rural Water Sector Reform in Ghana.  Client: World Bank-Africa (Piers Cross).  2003.

Project appraisal:  Assessed the need and demand for a fish processing and flake ice factory on the part of fishers and market women.  Client: Danida.  Contractor: HAP Consultants.  1999.


Project Completion Report:  Write the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project Implementation Completion Report in line with World Bank guidelines.  Client: World Bank, Latin American and Caribbean Region (Jean-Martin Brault).  January – June 2014.


Project evaluation/appraisal:  Assessed participatory planning, community management of operation and management, gender roles, and hygiene and sanitation activities in an on-going Danida rural drinking water and sanitation project in three districts of Karnataka State.  Appraised proposed second phase in same respects.  Client:  Danida.  Contractor: Resources Development Consultants (Jens Bjerre).  2000.

Program evaluation:  Assessed participation and community training in Danida-supported drinking water program (comprising five projects).  Client: Danida (Kurt Morck Jensen).  Contractor: Denconsult (John Carlsen).  1991.


Desk Study:  Summarized literature on water pricing and social safety nets in the water supply and sanitation sector for USAID policy discussion papers.  Client: USAID.  Contractor: International Resources Group (Barbara Rossmiller).  2006.


Project evaluation:  Wrote the Kenya Microfinance for Water Projects Completion Report.   Client: World Bank  (Sylvain Adokpo Migan).  February – October 2013.

Project implementation:  Socio-economic advisor on SIDA Water Financial Management Project.  Client : SIDA (Ingvar Andersson).  Contractor: Hifab International (Gordon Tamm).  1988-90.

Research:  Investigated politics and economics of French assistance to Kenya, with a focus on the Turkwel Hydropower Dam project.  1990.  (Background research completed in France, 1991).


Impact evaluation:  Water Supply expert on team to prepare a quantitative impact evaluation of rural and urban water supply and sanitation activities. Reviewed expected causal links between activities and objectives for theoretical, measurement, and practical problems.  Advised client and contractor on actions and decisions that must be taken to ensure timely implementation of evaluation.   Client: Millennium Challenge Corporation (Paul Pleva).  Contractor: NORC (Jeff Telgarsky).  2008.


Project Evaluation:  Team Leader. Reviewed the implementation of the WaterAid 2010-2015 country program in order to identify issues affecting progress toward the global aims and strategic objectives.   Prepared the briefing note, WaterAid Madagascar Country Programme Evaluation 2012.   Client: WaterAid (Papa Diouf).  2012.


Project supervision:  Participated in a World Bank supervision mission, with primary responsibility to review the progress on the rural piped schemes.  Client: World Bank (Robert Roche).  2002.

Research:  Conducted field research on sustainability of community managed piped schemes and handpumps.  Findings published in World Development and Public Administration and Development.  Employer:  Centre for Development Research, Copenhagen.  1997-98.


Project appraisal:  Assessed willingness and ability of fishers to purchase ice, and did socio-economic profile of project areas, as part of a team appraising ten ice plants.  Client: Danida.  Contractor: HAP Consultants.  2000.


Public expenditure review:  Analyzed available data and wrote the water sector background paper for the Mozambique public expenditure review.  Client: World Bank (Peter Moll).  2003.

Project evaluation:  Assessed community participation activities in Tete Urban Water Supply Scheme.  Client: Danida (Leif Hommelgaard).  Contractor: HAP Consultants.  1999.


Social impact assessment.  For the National Energy Development Project, wrote Resettlement Policy Framework and template for Resettlement Action Plans as required by World Bank safeguard policy on involuntary resettlement (BP/OP 4.12).  Based on the findings of the environmental scientist and self, wrote Environmental and Social Impact Management Framework.   Client:  World Bank (S. Vijay Iyer).  Contractor: Novatech (David Sood).  2005.


Annual  program review:  DFID Phase II Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Support.  Write strategic review of key issues identified in Terms of Reference, such as the viability of the performance by results strategy, and the sustainability of rural water supplies. Client: DFID-Tanzania (Lukas Kwezi).  2015.

Demand assessment survey:  Team Leader.  Planned and prepared an 18 district/180 village survey of communities’ management of, and effective demand for, rural water supplies.  Client: World Bank (Ato Brown) and Tanzanian Ministry of Water.  Contractor: Cowater International (Michael McGarry).  2003.

Stakeholder analysis:  Helped the Dar es Salaam Water and Sewerage Authority plan stakeholder consultations prior to World Bank appraisal of credit to rehabilitate the city’s water supply and sewerage infrastructure.  Client: World Bank (Alain Locussol).  2002.

Stakeholder analysis:  Identified stakeholders implicated in an urban environmental planning and management project for Tanga municipality.  Client: Danida.  Contractor: HAP Consultants.  2000.

Project implementation:  Worked as Sr. Socio-economic Adviser on Danida water and sanitation project.  Published assessment of project strategy.  Client: Danida (Jens Grue Sjorslev).  Contractor: Denconsult (John Carlsen).  1993-95.

Project implementation:  Worked as Mbeya Region Village Participation Advisor on Danida water and sanitation project.  Client: Danida (Eric Sjorslev).  Contractor: Denconsult (John Carlsen).  1993.

Project audit:  Evaluated proposed operation and maintenance strategy for Danida water and sanitation project.  Analysis and recommendations led to adoption of new strategy based on district backstopping of community organizations.  Client: Danida (Eric Sjorslev).  Contractor: Denconsult (John Carlsen).  1993.

Project evaluation:  Participated in the evaluation of an integrated rural development program in Rukwa region.  Client: NORAD.  Contractor: Centre for Development Studies, University of Bergen.  1990.

Program evaluation/strategy analysis:  Prepared a study of the rural water supply and sanitation sector in Tanzania, focusing on UNICEF, SIDA, Danida, NORAD, and FINNIDA programs.  Client: Water and Sanitation Program (Steven Boydell).  1988.

Project implementation:  Worked as Sr. Socio-economic Adviser on SIDA water, health education, and sanitation project.  Client: SIDA (Ingvar Andersson).  Contractor: Hifab International (Gordon Tamm).  1986-88.

Research:  Carried out a comparative study of how politics and policy affected the implementation of SIDA and GTZ assisted water supply programs.  Funded by the Fulbright African Scholar Program.  1986.

University lecturer:  Taught methodology in the Political Science Department, University of Dar es Salaam.  1979-82.


Strategy Review:  Analyzed past policy and implementation in the water supply and sanitation sector in order to advise the Government of Uganda, World Bank, and other sector stakeholders on the design of a pro-poor strategy for the sector.  Water and Sanitation for the Poor and Bottom 40% report.   Client: World Bank-Uganda (Samuel Mutono).  2013 – 2015.

Special Study:  Analyzed the experience with rural sanitation performance benchmarking.  Client: World Bank-Uganda (Harriet Nattabi).  2013.

Special Study:  Investigated the impact of district leadership on scaling up rural sanitation.  Client: World Bank-Uganda (Harriet Nattabi).  2013.

Project review:  Handled issues related to community management, gender, hygiene promotion, and sanitation in a review of Danida’s assistance to the water and sanitation sector.  Client: Danida (Leif Hommelgaard).  Contractor: HAP Consultants.  2001.

Project identification:  Handled issues related to women’s and women’s group participation in a project identification mission for an agro-forestry project.  Client: Danida.  Contractor: Denconsult (John Carlsen).  1992.

Project preparation:  Assisted with revising the socio-economic strategy for the revised Plan of Operation for the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project (RUWASA).  Client: Danida.  Contractor: Denconsult (John Carlsen).  1992.

Project implementer:  Head, Socio-economic Section, Rural Water Supply and Sanitation (RUWASA) Project.  Client: Danida.  Contractor: Centre for Development Research, Copenhagen (Jannik Boesen).  1990.


Project supervision:  Advised country office on options for next phase of project.  Part of technical support provided to South Asia Region while on the World Bank staff.  2010.  (Team Leader – Hoa Hwong).

Project appraisal:  Did socio-economic profile and willingness and ability to pay assessment as part of team appraising a pig breeding farm project and a fish meal factory:  Client: Danida.  Contractor: HAP Consultants.  2000.


Rural water sector policy:  Team Leader.  Reviewed the strategy, program, and institutional responsibilities for rural water supply and sanitation sector.  Designed a scaling-up strategy.  Client: World Bank-Africa (Piers Cross).  2003.

Water sector reform:  Analyzed lessons learned from water sector reform in Zambia.  Client: World Bank-Africa (Piers Cross).  2003.

Project evaluation:  Team Leader.  Assessed lessons learned from six community-managed peri-urban water supplies, funded under a World Bank sector loan, on Zambia’s Copperbelt.  Reviewed how project design affected by context:  situation in Zambia’s peri-urban areas; experience with other peri-urban water projects in country; experimentation with demand responsive approach; Bank’s effort to establish commercial utilities on Copperbelt.  Documented how implementation decisions radically altered project design.  Assessed effectiveness of implementation, and cost effectiveness and sustainability of completed projects. Developed lessons learned and recommendations for new Bank project on Copperbelt.  Client: World Bank (Jane Walker).  2001.